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Literary Criticism & Analysis

English 4 (A. Moellering, M. Garcia)

General Citing Information

notecards that say why cite? on them

Citing is an important part of academic writing, content creation, and daily communications.  We cite in order to:

 

  • track research to easily refer back to sources.
  • engage in scholarly conversation.
  • be an ethical content creator or sharer.
  • be useful to the reader or listener.
  • avoid plagiarism.

 

Whenever you use someone else's work or ideas.

In general, there are three ways to incorporate information from your sources into your research project:

  1. Direct Quote: uses the author's exact wording and must be a block quote or in quotations.
    • if you use the author's exact wording and do not put the quote in quotation marks, you are plagiarizing, even if you provide an in-text citation.  To avoid, just make sure to use quotation marks or use a paraphrase or summary instead.
  2. Paraphrase: one or two sentences that communicate a particular idea from the work in your words.
    • Warning: Do not just change a few words around! This is considered close paraphrasing, which is a superficial modification of the author's words.  Close paraphrasing is considered plagiarizing.  To avoid, make sure you understand what the author is saying and then re-write a few times, separately, in your own words.
  3. Summarize.
    • Three or more sentences (paragraph) in your own words that summarize the main ideas. 

Each time you have incorporated information from your sources into your paper, you need to cite the source in the following two places:

  1. Short, "in-text" citations throughout the body of the project that refer the reader to the...
  2. List of full form citations at end of the project in a bibliography.

The style guide will tell you exactly how to format each of these parts of citing, but the idea is the same across all of the styles.

APA and MLA are two of the most common style guides for academic writing and publishing, but there are MANY others (Style Guides).  We also have styles for every day citing -- think of the 'PC:@" or "camera emoji:@" in Instagram to give photo credit or think of an online article that links to other articles.  These are not the formal academic citing styles from a published style guide like MLA & APA, but they do follow an accepted social guideline for how to correctly give credit to the original creator.

Good to know:

  • Style manuals, like the APA and MLA, were developed to standardize formatting for authors publishing in that field.
  • Styles manuals can vary from general guidelines to very specific formatting rules.
  • Many Instructors will have their own particular preferences within these styles.
  • The purpose is the same.
  • Elements needed are generally the same (author, work title, publication title, date of publication, pages, specific publication information, online location).
  • Arrangement of elements and formatting are different.

MLA Style

MLA (Modern Language Association) style is one of several different format dictating citation styling/formatting and is most commonly used to for writing within liberal arts and humanities. The primary source for MLA style is the MLA Handbook, shown below. The most current edition is the 8th edition, which offers examples of citations and in-text citations, along with abbreviation and scholarly writing tips.

MLA style (8th Ed) follows these three principles (pp. 3-4):

  1. Cite core elements shared by most works.
  2. There is often more that one correct way to cite a source.
  3. Documentation needs to be useful to readers. 

Core Elements (pp. 20-50):

These are the core Elements, identified in MLA 8, that should generally be included in the citation (if they exist) to fulfill principle #1, above.  For many sources there is more than one container.

Source

  1. Author.
  2. "Title" (italics if self-contained source or quotes if part of a larger container; title case caps).

Container(s)

  1. Title of Container,
  2. Other Contributors,
  3. Version,
  4. Number, 
  5. Publisher,
  6. Publication Date,
  7. Location.

Optional Elements (pp. 50-53)

Optional elements may be included at the writer's discretion to fulfill principle #3, above.

  • Date of Original Publication
  • City of Publication
  • Total number of volumes for a multi-volume work.
  • Type of work, if unexpected (eg. Transcript or Lecture.)
  • Information about prior publication.
  • Congressional Session
  • Date of Access

MLA Citations Templates

MLA Source Specific Citation Templates from Noodletools

These templates, created by Noodletools, prompt the student for exactly what information is required for the particular source they are using.  To view the original page click here.

The following two papers are from the MLA Style Guide and are great examples of how to write and format in MLA Style.  Visit the site at https://style.mla.org/sample-papers/ for more information.

This guide is meant as a general overview.  For more in-depth help, please use the following resources, review the MLA handbook, or contact an LPC librarian.